Emerging role of chondroitin sulfate based nanocarriers in improving the therapeutic outcome of NSAIDs in the treatment of osteoarthritis through the TDDDS
Osteoarthritis is characterized by joint destruction followed by severe inflammation caused by variety of proinflammatory mediators released due to upregulation of nuclear translocation of nuclear factor (NF-kB). Current treatment involves chronic administration of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) that is associated with bewildering array of systemic adverse effects. Transdermal drug delivery system address challenges of systemic toxicities but toxic chemical penetration enhancers limit its utility. Novel drug delivery system explores the potential of bio-inspired materials for designing of safe and effective carriers that specifically deliver drug to site of action with enhanced transdermal penetration of the drug. Chondroitin sulfate, a biopolymer that mimic extracellular matrix, binds specifically with its overexpressed receptors (CD44, RHAMM and ICAM-I) at inflammatory site, biodegradable and possess intrinsic anti-inflammatory properties. These attributes render chondroitin sulfate an ideal carrier for the drug delivery in osteoarthritis. Chondroitin sulfate based nanocarriers serve as a potential drug delivery system that not only deliver anti-arthritis drug through the skin but also produce synergistic effect to improve therapeutic outcome. In this review, molecular mechanism of intrinsic anti-inflammatory effects of chondroitin sulfate in osteoarthritis is discussed in detail. Moreover, potential of chondroitin sulfate to perform dual role of therapeutic agent as well as serve as nanocarrier in transdermal drug delivery for the treatment of osteoarthritis is elaborated.
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